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This can be verified easily with: If this command results in a message about an “Input/output error”, our drive is broken or otherwise fails to interact with the Linux kernel as expected. or instructed to perform integrity self-tests of different thoroughness.

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Whenever I looked in the dmesg logs I would see errors such as these [202118.117543] print_req_error: I/O error, dev sda, sector 836148808 [202118.117555] Buffer I/O error on dev sda1, logical block 104518345, async page read [202118.117585] ata4: EH complete [202118.820841] ata4.00: exception Emask 0x0 SAct 0x0 SErr 0x0 action 0x0 [202118.820848] ata4.00: irq_stat 0x40000001 [202118.820855] ata4.00: failed command: READ DMA [202118.820868] ata4.00: cmd c8/:e:3d/:/e7 tag in res 51/:e:3d/:/e7 Emask 0x9 (media error) [202118.820874] ata4.00: status: [202118.820878] ata4.00: error: [202118.877330] ata4.00: configured for UDMA/133 [202118.877355] sd 3:0:0:0: [sda] tag#14 FAILED Result: hostbyte=DID_OK driverbyte=DRIVER_SENSE [202118.877361] sd 3:0:0:0: [sda] tag#14 Sense Key : Medium Error [current] [202118.877367] sd 3:0:0:0: [sda] tag#14 Add. SMART Attributes Data Structure revision number: 1 Vendor Specific SMART Attributes with Thresholds: ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME FLAG VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE UPDATED WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE 5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct 0x0032 100 100 000 Old_age Always - 1024 9 Power_On_Hours 0x0032 100 100 000 Old_age Always - 436 12 Power_Cycle_Count 0x0032 100 100 000 Old_age Always - 90 170 Unknown_Attribute 0x0033 098 098 010 Pre-fail Always - 0 171 Unknown_Attribute 0x0032 100 100 010 Old_age Always - 0 172 Unknown_Attribute 0x0032 100 100 010 Old_age Always - 0 174 Unknown_Attribute 0x0032 100 100 000 Old_age Always - 59 183 Runtime_Bad_Block 0x0032 100 100 000 Old_age Always - 0 184 End-to-End_Error 0x0033 100 100 090 Pre-fail Always - 0 187 Reported_Uncorrect 0x0032 100 100 000 Old_age Always - 299 190 Airflow_Temperature_Cel 0x0032 052 066 000 Old_age Always - 52 (Min/Max 28/66) 192 Power-Off_Retract_Count 0x0032 100 100 000 Old_age Always - 59 199 UDMA_CRC_Error_Count 0x0032 100 100 000 Old_age Always - 3 225 Unknown_SSD_Attribute 0x0032 100 100 000 Old_age Always - 206243 226 Unknown_SSD_Attribute 0x0032 100 100 000 Old_age Always - 0 227 Unknown_SSD_Attribute 0x0032 100 100 000 Old_age Always - 0 228 Power-off_Retract_Count 0x0032 100 100 000 Old_age Always - 0 232 Available_Reservd_Space 0x0033 027 027 010 Pre-fail Always - 0 233 Media_Wearout_Indicator 0x0032 098 098 000 Old_age Always - 0 241 Total_LBAs_Written 0x0032 100 100 000 Old_age Always - 206243 242 Total_LBAs_Read 0x0032 100 100 000 Old_age Always - 179722 249 Unknown_Attribute 0x0032 100 100 000 Old_age Always - 3172 252 Unknown_Attribute 0x0032 100 100 000 Old_age Always - 5SMART Error Log Version: 1 No Errors Logged SMART Self-test log structure revision number 0 Warning: ATA Specification requires self-test log structure revision number = 1 No self-tests have been logged. If Selective self-test is pending on power-up, resume after 0 minute delay. I even changed the slot of the drive from one M.2 slot to another with no positive results.

Sense: Unrecovered read error - auto reallocate failed [202118.877373] sd 3:0:0:0: [sda] tag#14 CDB: Read(10) 28 00 07 3d 72 e8 00 00 0 I booted my machine from a USB drive and immediately created an image of the failing drive via: dd if=/dev/sda of=/media/backup/failing_drive.status=progress conv=noerror,sync The noerror,sync is very important since when the drive is failing, a read from the block device returns failing return codes which dd will quit upon seeing unless given the noerror flag where it ignores such errors and carriers on. [To run self-tests, use: smartctl -t]SMART Selective self-test log data structure revision number 1 SPAN MIN_LBA MAX_LBA CURRENT_TEST_STATUS 1 70403103932424 70403103932424 Not_testing 2 70403103932424 70403103932424 Not_testing 3 70403103932424 70403103932424 Not_testing 4 70403103932424 70403103932424 Not_testing 5 70403103932424 70403103932424 Not_testing Selective self-test flags (0x4008): After scanning selected spans, do NOT read-scan remainder of disk. SMART capabilities: (0x0003) Saves SMART data before entering power-saving mode. Error logging capability: (0x01) Error logging supported. Short self-test routine recommended polling time: ( 2) minutes. So that did not help a lot in the least, I tried then running badblocks in non-destructive mode to see if there are any read/write errors on the drive via: sudo badblocks -svvn -c 262144 /dev/sda1 The output of which was: Checking for bad blocks in non-destructive read-write mode From block 0 to 960032767Checking for bad blocks (non-destructive read-write test)Testing with random pattern: 60732788done, elapsed. Either way this drive is not to be trusted anymore!

Fix I don’t really understand that, but it sounds like it found something wrong.

Illegal indirect block (161766104) in inode 590080. Illegal triple indirect block (161776560) in inode 590080. Inode 590080, i_size is 693150323631456341, should be 4096.

It's possible to abort automatically on error with the option As above, but without restoring the previous drive content after performing the write test, therefore it's a little faster.

Since data is erased anyway, forceful termination remains without (additional) negative consequence.

Once programs are running that have files open for writing you can no longer remount the root file system as read only to run a file system check.

(Not without shutting those programs down, but they will be core system services like systemd that will cause you to lose your SSH connection if you tried) Holding down SHIFT when booting is something we added that interrupts the boot process VERY early while the file system is still read only and we do an automatic file system scan at that point before dropping you to a recovery console command prompt.

In the latter case, a different operating system is worth a try. If the error count rises above zero, we'll know that there's a bad block.

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