The early Ban Liang coins were said to have been made in the shape of wheels like how other Ancient Chinese forms of coinage were based on agricultural tools.
A string of cash weighed over ten pounds and was generally carried over the shoulder.
(See Hosea Morse's "Trade and Administration of the Chinese Empire" p.
From 1730 during the Qing dynasty, the mother coins were no longer carved separately but derived from "ancestor coins" (zǔ qián 祖錢).
Eventually this resulted in greater uniformity among cast Chinese coinage from that period onwards.
The mother coins were placed on the sand, and another pear wood frame would be placed upon the mother coin.
The molten metal was poured in through a separate entrance formed by placing a rod in the mould.
As the cash coins produced over Chinese history were similar, thousand year old cash coins produced during the Northern Song dynasty continued to circulate as valid currency well into the early twentieth century.
In the modern era, these coins are considered to be Chinese “good luck coins”; they are hung on strings and round the necks of children, or over the beds of sick people.
Cash was a type of coin of China and East Asia, used from the 4th century BC until the 20th century AD, characterised by their round outer shape and a square center hole (方穿, fāng chuān).