Pottery evidence suggests that manioc, which remains a staple foodstuff today, was being cultivated as early as 2000 BCE.
South American cultures began domesticating llamas and alpacas in the highlands of the Andes circa 3500 BCE.
These animals were used for both transportation and meat; their fur was shorn or collected to use to make clothing.
In the Albian, around 110 mya, South America and Africa began to diverge along the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, giving rise to a landmass of Antarctica and South America.
During the late Eocene, around 35 mya, Antarctica and South America separated and South America became a massive, biologically rich island-continent.
However, some species were able to adapt and spread into North America.
Apart from Pliometanastes, during the Irvingtonian stage of the mammal land stages, around 1.9 mya, species as Pampatherium, a giant armadillo, ground sloth Megatherium, giant anteater Myrmecophaga, a Neogene capybara (Hydrochoerus), Meizonyx, opossum Didelphis, and Mixotoxodon followed the route north.
Genetic and linguistic evidence has shown that the last wave of migrant peoples settled across the northern tier, and did not reach South America.
The first evidence for the existence of agricultural practices in South America dates back to circa 6500 BCE, when potatoes, chilies and beans began to be cultivated for food in the Amazon Basin.The mixing of ethnic groups led to new social structures.The tensions between colonial countries in Europe, indigenous peoples, and escaped slaves shaped South America from the 16th through the 19th centuries.With the revolution for independence from the Spanish crown achieved during the 19th century, South America underwent yet more social and political changes.These have included nation building projects, absorbing waves of immigration from Europe in the late 19th and 20th centuries, dealing with increased international trade, colonization of hinterlands, and wars about territory ownership and power balance.During this period there has also been the reorganization of Indigenous rights and duties, subjugation of Indigenous peoples living in the states' frontiers, that lasted until the early 1900s; liberal-conservative conflicts among the ruling classes, and major demographic and environmental changes accompanying the development of sensitive habitats.